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Clinical Microbiology and Immunology

Facillity Head: Dr. Dilruba Ahmed, MBBS, MSc, PhD

Dr Dilruba Ahmed is a Clinical Microbiologist who is currently the Head of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology at icddr,b. She has been involved in the field diagnostic microbiology and immunology for over a decade.  Dr Ahmed, along with a team of skilled and dedicated laboratory staff, provides excellent service to users through its modern and cutting edge equipment. Under her guidance the laboratory has achieved international accreditation ISO 15189:2012 since 2010. The lab has an excellent platform to identify antibiotic resistance pattern since the 1990s.,To keep pace with the recent and actual therapeutic pattern, Dr Ahmed has updated her laboratory with modern automated facility for identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Along with supporting patient services, Dr Ahmed collaborated with both the internal and external researchers, supported research work and has published papers in peer reviewed journals. She hosts national and international for short term fellowship and also mentors MSc and PhD student. Dr Ahmed coordinated training and workshops for Laboratory Technologists and Microbiologists in Nepal and assessed The Clinical Laboratory and Public Health Laboratory at the National Referral Hospital to be the National Reference Laboratory.

Clinical Microbiology and Immunology Laboratory has the capacity to diagnose infection from clinical sample using modernised culture and automated serological platform. In the microbiology section, samples from stool and swabs are processed by conventional method. In addition, body fluids like blood, CSF are processed in BacTAlert 3D FAN method. This advanced technique enables detection of pathogen from patient sample even with a history of antibiotic intake. In the era of antibiotic resistance the laboratory has developed and added the capacity for expedition of identification and antimicrobial testing susceptibility method using VITEK 2 technique. The advancement of this system has expedited the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of pathogen and allowed to deliver the patient report within 24 to 48 hours instead of 72 to 96 hours. Other immunological screenings include viral markers, infectious disease markers, tumor markers, autoimmune disease markers, food and inhalation allergy test, which the facility assists to identify 76 allergy panels. Along with patient services, the laboratory provides quality research support and collaborates with both the institutional and external researchers. Quality control of the lab activities is continued by participation in external quality control through the College of American Pathology including internal and inter-lab quality control.

Lab Services Menu

Test Name

Abdominal Fluid for CS

AFB Stain

    also known as : Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB)


    also known as : Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker

Amnioitic fluid for CS


    also known as : Antinuclear Antibody

Anorectal swab for CS

Anti CCP

    also known as : Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody, CCP Antibody

Anti dsDNA

    also known as : Antibody to ds-DNA, Anti-double-stranded DNA

Anti HAV IgM

Anti-H. Pylori IgG

    also known as : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) Antibody

Anti-HBc (T)

Anti-HBc IgM

    also known as : Hepatitis B Core Antibody



Anti-HCV (T)

Anti-HEV IgM

Ascitic fluid for CS

ASO titre

    also known as : Antistreptolysin O (ASO)

Aspergillus galactomannan test

AST of Single Pathogen by VITEK2

Beta 2 Microglobulin (blood)

Beta 2 Microglobulin (urine)

Bile for CS

Blood for CS

Blood for CS (2 Btl)

Blood for CS by VITEK 2

Body fluid for CS by VITEK 2

Bone Marrow for CS

Bronchoalveolar Lavage for CS


CA 125

    also known as : Cancer Antigen 125

CA 15-3

    also known as : Cancer Antigen 15-3

CA 19-9

    also known as : Cancer Antigen 19-9


    also known as : Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)

Cervical Swab for CS


    also known as : Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG


    also known as : Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM

Confirmatory Anti-Dengue IgG by ELISA

Confirmatory Anti-Dengue IgM by ELISA

Confirmatory Dengue ELISA IgM & IgG

Conjunctival swab (L) for CS

Conjunctival swab(R) for CS


CSF for CS


Dark field Microscopy

Dengue IgG & IgM (together)

Dengue NS 1 Antigen

Ear swab(L) for CS

Ear swab(R) for CS

Endotracheal tube for CS

Eye solution for CS by VITEK 2

Floor Swab for CS

Food allergy panel test

Food and Inhalation allergy panel test

Free PSA

Gangrenous Tissue for CS

Gastric Lavage for CS

Genital ulcer for CS

Gingival Swab for CS

Gram Stain

Gum ulcer swab for CS

H. Pylori CS from gastric biopsy


    also known as : Hepatitis B e Antigen


    also known as : Hepatitis B Surface Antigen, HBV Tests Hep B

HBsAg (Confirmatory)

HBV DNA Viral Load

High vaginal swab for CS

HIV Ag/Ab combo

    also known as : Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV Screening Tests, AIDS Test, AIDS Screen, HIV Antibody p24 Antigen Combo





HVS wetflim for trichomonas

ICT for Malaria

ID & AST of Single Pathogen by VITEK2

Identification by API system

Identification of Single Pathogen by VITEK2

Inhalation allergy panel test

Joint fluid for CS

KLB Stain

Lung aspirate for CS

Miscellaneous for CS


Nasal swab (L) for CS

Nasal swab(R) for CS

Nasopharyngeal swab for CS

Oral Swab for CS

Oropharyngeal swab for CS

Pericadial fluid for CS

Peritonial fluid for CS

Plueral fluid for CS

Pregnancy test (Urine)

Prostatic fluid swab for CS


    also known as : Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

Pus from blister for CS

Pus from boil for CS

Pus from burn for CS

Pus from fistula/sinus tract for CS

PUS from wound for CS


    also known as : RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis), RF (Rheumatoid Factor)

Rose-waaler test

RPR (Qualitative)

    also known as : RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin), VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory)


    also known as : RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin), VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory)

RS CS for Sal., Shig., Vibrio & Campy spp.

Rubella IgG

Rubella IgM

Scraping for fungus

Semen for CS

Skin scrap for CS

Skin ulcer swab for CS

Sputum for AFB Stain

Sputum for CS

Sputum for Eosinophil count

Stool CS for Sal., Shig. & Campy spp

Stool CS for Sal., Shig., Vibrio & Campy spp.

Stool for CS by VITEK 2

Synovial fluid for CS

Throat Swab for CS

Tongue swab for CS

Toxoplasma IgG

Toxoplasma IgM


    also known as : Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA)

Tracheal aspirate for CS

Traumatic Fluid for CS

Triple antigen

Umbilical swab for CS

Urethral swab for CS

Urine for AFB

Urine for CS

Urine for CS by VITEK 2

VDRL (Qualitative)

    also known as : VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory), RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin)

VDRL (Quantitative)

    also known as : VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory), RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin)

VS for CS


Wet smear for fungus


Wound Swab for CS